10 Research Based Principles of Instruction

10 Research Based Strategies That All Teachers Should Know

This is a summary of a recent article in American Educator by Barak Rosenshine. Each of the following principles of effective research based pedagogy is thoroughly supported in both the research and classroom practice. In fact, the article organizes each principle by explaining the research base and then immediately following it up with practical classroom application. This is not some pie in the sky researcher pontificating on what should work. This is a practical “10 Commandments” of what actually has been proven to work in the classroom and in the research.

1) Begin Lesson with a Short Review of Previous Learning

  • Daily review can strengthen learning and lead to fluent recall

2) Present New Material in Small Steps with Practice After Each Step

  • Only present small amounts at any one time
  • 10:2 Lecturing
  • Assist students as they practice what they learn

3) Ask a Large Number of Questions

  • Questions help students practice new information
  • Questions help students connect new material to prior learning
  • Use strategies that involve all students in the questioning

4) Provide Models

  • Models helps students learn to solve problems quicker

5) Guide Student Practice

  • Guide students to success as they practice the new material

6) Check for Student Understanding

  • Check at each point in the lesson
  • This helps students learn the material with minimal errors

7) Obtain a High Success Rate

  • Students must experience a high success rate during classroom instruction if learning is to take hold

8) Scaffold Difficult Tasks

  • Provide temporary support to assist students during difficult learning
  • Remove supports only when student has demonstrated success

9) Require and Monitor Independent Practice

  • Students need extensive, successful, independent practice
  • This ensures the skills and knowledge become automatic

10) Engage Students in Weekly and Monthly Review

  • Students need extensive practice over time
  • Frequency of review ensures development of well connected and automatic knowledge

The article ends with a wonderful list of suggested readings for each of the 10 principles as well as a bibliography of the research upon which the assertions are made.

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