“One of the best tools available to educators is explicit instruction.” (Archer & Hughes 2011)
In a synthesis of a wide range of research, Anita Archer and Charles Hughes recently extolled the benefits of explicit instruction. In their recent book “Effective and Efficient Teaching”, they suggest that developing the ability to effectively implement explicit instruction in the classroom is the best method of improving student learning. They define 16 Elements of Explicit Instruction.
- Focus instruction on critical content
- Sequence skills logically
- Break down complex skills and strategies into smaller instructional units
- Design organized and focused lessons
- Begin lessons with a clear statement of lesson goals and expectations
- Review prior skills and knowledge before beginning new instruction
- Provide step-by-step demonstration
- Use clear and concise language
- Provide an adequate range of examples and non-examples
- Provide guided and supported practice
- Require frequent response
- Monitor student performance closely
- Provide immediate affirmative and corrective feedback
- Deliver lessons at a brisk pace
- Help students organize knowledge
- Provide distributed and cumulative practice.
Leave thoughts are reflections about these elements below.